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Route 40 between New York and Washington, D. Kennedy setting up a Special Protocol Service Section within the State Department to assist black diplomats traveling and living within the United States.

Williams wrote in his book, This Is My Country Too , that he did not believe "white travelers have any idea of how much nerve and courage it requires for a Negro to drive coast to coast in America.

Along the way, he had to endure a stream of "insults of clerks, bellboys, attendants, cops, and strangers in passing cars.

Segregation meant that facilities for African-American motorists were limited, but entrepreneurs of both races realized the lucrative opportunities in marketing goods and services to black patrons.

To address this problem, African-American writers produced a number of guides to provide travel advice. These included directories of hotels, camps, road houses, and restaurants which would serve African Americans.

Jewish travelers, who had long experienced discrimination at many vacation spots, created guides for their own community, though they were at least able to visibly blend in more easily with the general population.

It was conceived in and first published in by Victor H. He said his aim was "to give the Negro traveler information that will keep him from running into difficulties, embarrassments and to make his trip more enjoyable.

Dashiell in the Spring edition of the Green Book , "the idea crystallized when not only [Green] but several friends and acquaintances complained of the difficulties encountered; oftentimes painful embarrassments suffered which ruined a vacation or business trip.

Green asked his readers to provide information "on the Negro motoring conditions, scenic wonders in your travels, places visited of interest and short stories on one's motoring experience.

The Green Book's motto, displayed on the front cover, urged black travelers to "Carry your Green Book with you — You may need it".

They were arranged by state and subdivided by city, giving the name and address of each business.

For an extra payment, businesses could have their listing displayed in bold type or have a star next to it to denote that they were "recommended".

Many such establishments were run by and for African Americans and in some cases were named after prominent figures in African-American history.

By contrast, Shell gas stations were known to refuse black customers. The edition included an Esso endorsement message that told readers: Although Green usually refrained from editorializing in the Green Book , he let his readers' letters speak for the influence of his guide.

William Smith of Hackensack, New Jersey , described it as a "credit to the Negro Race" in a letter published in the edition.

It is a book badly needed among our Race since the advent of the motor age. Realizing the only way we knew where and how to reach our pleasure resorts was in a way of speaking, by word of mouth, until the publication of The Negro Motorist Green Book We earnestly believe that [it] will mean as much if not more to us as the A.

You think about the things that most travelers take for granted, or most people today take for granted. If I go to New York City and want a hair cut, it's pretty easy for me to find a place where that can happen, but it wasn't easy then.

White barbers would not cut black peoples' hair. White beauty parlors would not take black women as customers — hotels and so on, down the line.

You needed the Green Book to tell you where you can go without having doors slammed in your face. While the Green Book was intended to make life easier for those living under Jim Crow, its publisher looked forward to a time when such guidebooks would no longer be necessary.

As Green wrote, "there will be a day sometime in the near future when this guide will not have to be published.

That is when we as a race will have equal opportunities and privileges in the United States. It will be a great day for us to suspend this publication for then we can go as we please, and without embarrassment.

Los Angeles is now considering offering special protection to the sites that kept black travelers safe.

Ken Bernstein, principal planner for the city's Office of Historic Resources notes, "At the very least, these sites can be incorporated into our city's online inventory system.

The Green Book was published locally in New York, but its popularity was such that from it was distributed nationally with input from Charles McDowell, a collaborator on Negro Affairs for the United States Travel Bureau , a government agency.

Coverage was good in the eastern US and weak in Great Plains states such as North Dakota , where there were few black residents.

He also established a vacation reservation service in to take advantage of the post-war boom in automobile travel. The Green Book recommended that black-owned businesses raise their standards, as travelers were "no longer content to pay top prices for inferior accommodations and services".

The quality of black-owned lodgings was coming under scrutiny, as many prosperous blacks found them to be second-rate compared to the white-owned lodgings from which they were excluded.

The edition noted:. A few years after its publication By the start of the s, the Green Book ' s market was beginning to erode; African-American civil rights activism was having effects, even before the passage of the Civil Rights Act of to prohibit racial segregation in public facilities.

An increasing number of middle-class African Americans were beginning to question whether guides such as the Green Book were accommodating Jim Crow by steering black travelers to segregated businesses rather than encouraging them to push for equal access.

Black-owned motels in remote locations off state highways lost customers to a new generation of integrated interstate motels located near freeway exits.

The Green Book acknowledged that the activism of the civil rights movement had "widened the areas of public accommodations accessible to all," but it defended the continued listing of black-friendly businesses because "a family planning for a vacation hopes for one that is free of tensions and problems.

The edition was the last to be published after the Civil Rights Act of made the guide effectively obsolete by outlawing racial discrimination in public accommodations.

The title was changed to Traveler's Green Book: International Edition — no longer just for the Negro, or the motorist — as its publishers sought to widen its appeal.

In the s, academics, artists, curators, and writers exploring the history of African-American travel in the United States during the Jim Crow era revived interest in the Green Book.

The result has been a number of projects, books and other works referring to the Green Book. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In List IV only the most important erasures have been given.

The first column shows what was written originally, the second the sign as corrected, and the third the sign intended. KI u ilu DAM. When the lofty Anu, king of the Anunnaki, and Bel, lord of heaven and earth, he who determines the destiny of the land, committed the rule of all mankind to Marduk, the chief son of Ea; when they made him great among the Igigi; when they pronounced the lofty name of Babylon; when they made it famous among the quarters of the world and in its midst established an everlasting kingdom whose foundations were firm as heaven and earth—at that time, Anu and Bel called me, Hammurabi, the exalted prince, the worshiper of the gods, to cause justice to prevail in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil, to prevent the strong from oppressing the weak, to go forth like the Sun over the Black Head Race, to enlighten the land and to further the welfare of the people.

Hammurabi, the governor named by Bel, am I, who brought about plenty and abundance; who made everything for Nippur and Durilu complete; the exalted supporter of E-kur; the wise king, who restored Eridu to its place; who purified Col.

II the sanctuary 1 of E-apsu; who Edition: III ; who extended the limits of Cutha; who enlarged Shid-lam in every way; the mighty bull, who gores the enemy; the beloved of Tu-tu; who made the city of Borsippa beautiful; 3 the exalted one who was untiring for the welfare of Ezida; the divine city king, wise and intelligent, who extended the settlements of Dilbat; who stored up grain for the mighty Urash; the lord adorned with scepter and crown, whom the wise god Ma-ma has clothed with complete power; who defined the confines of Kish; who made sumptuous the splendid banquets in honor of Nin-tu; the wise and perfect one, who determined the pasture Edition: IV who presented life to the city of Mashkan-shabri; who poured out abundance over Shid-lam; the wise governor, who captured the bandit caves?

V , the ancient seed of royalty, the powerful king, the Sun of Babylon, who caused light to go forth over the lands of Sumer and Akkad; the king, who caused the four quarters of the world to render obedience; the favorite of Nana, am I.

When Marduk sent me to rule the people and to bring help to the country, I established law and justice in the land and promoted the welfare of the people.

PA 40 u lu-u NU. ZU 56 a-wi-lam b zi-im-ma-am kab-tam 57 i-na GIR. ZU a-wi-lam 75 zi-im-ma-am kab-tam 76 i-na GIR.

GAL kaspim 26 a-na A. If the river show that man to be innocent and he come forth unharmed, he who charged him with sorcery shall be put to death.

He who threw himself into the river shall take to himself the house of his accuser. If the thief have nothing wherewith to pay he shall be put to death.

The witnesses in whose presence the purchase was made and the witnesses to identify the lost property shall give their testimony in the presence of god.

The seller shall be put to death as a thief; the owner of the lost property shall recover his loss; the purchaser shall recover from the estate of the seller the money which he paid out.

In no case shall his field or his garden or his house be given for his ransom. The purchaser shall conduct the business of the field, garden or house which he has purchased.

He would cultivate it, and his field has been cultivated and at the time of harvest he shall take grain according to his contracts.

The agent shall take a sealed receipt for the money which he gives to the merchant. A, open a wine-shop or enter a wine-shop for a drink, they shall burn that woman.

If the husband of the woman would save his wife, or if the king would save his male servant he may. On her departure nothing shall be given to her for her divorce.

If her husband say: The first woman shall dwell in the house of her husband as a maid servant. He may not take a concubine. That concubine shall not rank with his wife.

His wife, who is afflicted with disease, he shall not put away. She shall remain in the house which he has built and he shall maintain her as long as she lives.

The mother after her death may will to her child whom she loves, but to a brother she may not. Her dowry belongs to her children. Her dowry belongs to the house of her father.

They shall receive the dowries of their respective mothers and they shall divide equally the goods of the house of the father.

If he commit a grave crime a second time, the father may cut off his son from sonship. The child of the wife shall have the right of choice at the division.

The maid servant and her children shall be given their freedom. The children of the wife may not lay claim to the children of the maid servant for service.

The wife shall receive her dowry and the gift which her husband gave and deeded to her on a tablet and she may dwell in the house of her husband and enjoy the property as long as she lives.

She cannot sell it, however, for after her death it belongs to her children. The owner of the slave shall receive one-half and the daughter of the man shall receive one-half for her children.

When she enters another house, the judges shall inquire into the estate of her former husband and they shall intrust the estate of her former husband to the later husband and that woman, and they shall deliver to them a tablet to sign.

They shall administer the estate and rear the minors. They may not sell the household goods. He who purchases household goods belonging to the sons of a widow shall forfeit his money.

The goods shall revert to their owner. If her brothers do not give her grain, oil, and wool according to the value of her share and they do not make her content, she may give her field and garden to any tenant she may please and her tenant shall maintain her.

She shall enjoy the field, garden or anything else which her father gave her as long as she lives. She may not sell it, nor transfer it.

Her heritage belongs to her brothers. Her brothers may not lay claim against her. After her death it belongs to her brothers.

After her death , it belongs to her brothers. A priestess of Marduk, after her death , may give to whomsoever she may please.

GA, who is a palace guard, or the son of a devotee. The father who reared him shall give to him of his goods one-third the portion of a son and he shall go.

He shall not give to him of field, garden or house. GA, or the son of a devotee, say to his father who has reared him, or his mother who has reared Edition: The brander shall swear: SE of silver; the wage of a.

SE of silver; the wage of a carpenter is 4 SE of silver; the wage of a? SE of silver; the wage of a mason is. SE of silver; so much per day shall he pay.

GA a-na im-ki-im. The righteous laws, which Hammurabi, the wise king, established and by which he gave the land stable support and pure government.

Hammurabi, the perfect king, am I. I was not careless, nor was I neglectful of the Black-Head people, whose rule Bel presented and Marduk delivered to me.

I provided them with a peaceful country. I opened up difficult barriers and lent them support. The great gods proclaimed me and I am the guardian governor, whose scepter is righteous and whose beneficent protection is spread over my city.

In my bosom I carried the people of the land of Sumer and Akkad; under my protection I brought their brethren into security; in my wisdom I restrained hid them; that the strong might not oppose the weak, and that they should give justice to the orphan and the widow, in Babylon, the city whose turrets Anu and Bel raised; in Esagila, the temple whose Edition: The king, who is pre-eminent among city kings, am I.

My words are precious, my wisdom is unrivaled. By the command of Shamash, the great judge of heaven and earth, may I make righteousness to shine forth on the land.

By the order of Marduk, my lord, may no one efface my statues, may my name be remembered with favor in Esagila forever.

Let any oppressed man, who has a cause, come before my image as king of righteousness! Let him read the inscription on my monument! Let him give heed to my weighty words!

And may my monument enlighten him as to his cause and may he understand his case! May he set his heart at ease! In the days that are yet to come, for all future time, may the king who is in the land observe the words of righteousness which I have written upon my monument!

May he not alter the judgments of the land which I have pronounced, or the decisions of the country which I have rendered!

May he not efface my Edition: If that man have wisdom, if he wish to give his land good government, let him give attention to the words which I have written upon my monument!

And may this monument enlighten him as to procedure and administration, the judgments which I have pronounced, and the decisions which I have rendered for the land!

And let him rightly rule his Black-Head people; let him pronounce judgments for them and render for them decisions!

Let him root out the wicked and evildoer from his land! Let him promote the welfare of his people!

Hammurabi, the king of righteousness, whom Shamash has endowed with justice, am I. My words are weighty; my deeds are unrivaled.

If that man do not pay attention to my words which I have written upon my monument; if he forget my curse and do not fear the curse of god; if he abolish the judgments which I have formulated, overrule my words, alter my statues, efface my name written thereon and write his own name; on account of these curses, commission another to do so—as for that man, be he king or lord, or priest-king or commoner, whoever he may be, may the great god, the father of the gods, who has ordained my reign, take from him the glory of his sovereignty, may he break his scepter, and curse his fate!

May Bel, the lord, who determines destinies, whose command cannot be altered, who has enlarged my dominion, drive him out from his dwelling through a revolt which his hand cannot control and a curse destructive to him.

May he determine as his fate a reign of sighs, days few in number, years of famine, darkness without light, death staring him in the face! The destruction of his city, the dispersion of his people, the wresting away of his dominion, the blotting out of his name and memory from the land, may Bel order with his potent command!

May Belit, the august mother, whose command is potent in E-kur, who looks with gracious favor upon my plans, in the place of judgment and decisions pervert his words in the presence of Bel!

May she put into the mouth of Bel, the king, the ruin of his land, the destruction of his people and the pouring out of his life like water!

May Ea, the great prince, whose decrees take precedence, the leader of the gods, who knows everything, who prolongs Col.

May he bring him to oblivion, and dam up his rivers at their sources! May he not permit corn, which is the life of the people, to grow in his land! May Shamash, the great judge of heaven and earth, who rules all living creatures, the lord inspiring confidence, overthrow his dominion; may he not grant him his rights!

May he make him to err in his path, may he destroy the mass foundation of his troops! May he bring to his view an evil omen of the uprooting of the foundation of his sovereignty, and the ruin of his land.

May the blighting curse of Shamash come upon him quickly! May he cut off his life above upon the earth! Below, within the earth, may he deprive his spirit of water!

May Sin, the lord of heaven, my divine creator, whose scimetar shines among the gods, take away from him the crown and Edition: May he lay upon him heavy guilt and great sin, which will not depart from him!

May he bring to an end the days, months, and years of his reign with sighing and tears! May he multiply the burdens of his sovereignty! May he determine as his fate a life like unto death!

May Adad, the lord of abundance, the regent of heaven and earth, my helper, deprive him of the rain from heaven and the water-floods from the springs!

May he bring his land to destruction through want and hunger! May he break loose furiously over his city and turn his land into a heap left by a whirlwind!

May he turn day into night for him, and place his enemy over him! May Ishtar, goddess of battle and conflict, who makes ready my weapons, the gracious protecting deity, who loves my reign, curse his dominion with great fury in her wrathful heart, and turn good into evil for him!

May she shatter his weapons on the field of battle and conflict! May she create confusion and revolt for him! May she strike down his warriors, may their blood water the earth!

May she cast the bodies of his warriors upon the field in heaps! May she not grant his warriors burial? May she deliver him into the hands of his enemies, and may they carry him away bound into a hostile land!

May Nergal, the mighty among the gods, the warrior without an equal, who grants me victory, in his great power, burn his people like a raging fire of swamp-reed.

With his powerful Edition: May Nin-tu, the exalted mistress of the lands, the mother who bore me, deny him a son! May she not let him hold a name among his people, nor beget an heir!

May Nin-kar-ra-ak, the daughter of Anu, who commands favors for me in E-kur, cause to come upon his members until it overcomes his life, a grievous malady, an evil disease, a dangerous sore, which cannot be cured, which the physician cannot diagnose, which he cannot allay with bandages, and which, like the bite of death, cannot be removed!

May he lament the loss of his vigor! May the great gods of heaven and earth, the Anunnaki in their assembly, curse with blighting curses the wall of the temple, the construction of this E-babbarra, his seed, his land, his army, his people, and his troops!

May Bel with his command which cannot be altered curse him with a powerful curse and may it come upon him speedily! II, 1, to purify, to prove innocent, to vindicate: I, 1, to bring: I, 2, to govern: III, 1, to bring, to take away, to transport: When Jesus says that His Kingdom is not of this world, He is not saying that His Kingdom is located in some other world; He is saying that His Kingdom, which is in this world, does not have its authority from the world, i.

What makes the Church a supernatural society, and not merely a natural society, is precisely that the authority by which she is governed is a supernatural authority.

His authority is supernatural because He is God. And He gave His supernatural authority sacramentally to His Apostles, and they in turn handed it on to their successors.

Only by apostolic succession is she a divine society that does not compete with natural societies, because grace builds on nature.

Since the Church is a supernatural society, ecclesial authorities cannot acquire their authority naturally under providential guidance. Ecclesial authority is not natural authority, but supernatural authority, and therefore requires succession from a supernatural source.

A second type of objection follows directly from the preceding paragraph. Mathison himself makes this sort of objection against the Catholic Church.

It results in final authority being placed somewhere other than the Word of God. It shares this problem with the Roman Catholic doctrine. Mathison clarifies this somewhat by claiming that what makes the Catholic Magisterium autonomous viz-a-viz Scripture is the notion that the Magisterium is infallible under certain conditions.

Finally, we must always be mindful that claims to infallibility by the Church or any member of the Church inevitably lead to autonomy on the part of the one or ones claiming such infallibility.

Even such qualified infallibility as that which is claimed by Rome has led to virtual autonomy. The Roman church has become a law unto herself.

Against what higher standard can an infallible Church be measured? The only standard against which Rome allows herself to be measured is Rome.

It can refer to the authority of the deposit of faith entrusted by Christ to the Apostles, or it can refer to teaching and interpretive authority with respect to that deposit of faith.

Mathison seems to conflate the two types, or fail to distinguish between them, as though having final interpretive authority with respect to Scripture is to be equal in authority to the deposit of faith.

There is a difference, however, between the authority of the deposit of faith, and interpretive authority. We can see this difference already in Tertullian, who writes:.

Our appeal [in debating with the heretics], therefore, must not be made to the Scriptures; nor must controversy be admitted on points in which victory will either be impossible, or uncertain, or not certain enough.

For a resort to the Scriptures would but result in placing both parties on equal footing, whereas the natural order of procedure requires one question to be asked first, which is the only one now that should be discussed: From what and through whom, and when, and to whom, has been handed down that rule by which men become Christians?

For wherever it shall be manifest that the true Christian rule and faith shall be, there will likewise be the true Scriptures and expositions thereof, and all the Christian traditions.

For as they are heretics, they cannot be true Christians, because it is not from Christ that they get that which they pursue of their own mere choice, and from the pursuit incur and admit the name of heretics.

Before debating the interpretation of Scripture, says Tertullian, we must first discover who has teaching and interpretive authority with respect to the deposit of faith.

To do this, we locate those to whom the deposit of faith was entrusted, as handed down from the Apostles. Tertullian was writing about one hundred years after the death of the last Apostle.

So the method he indicates for locating interpretive authority was not limited only to the generation after the Apostles. Tertullian indicates here a relation between interpretive authority and apostolic succession.

In each generation, those persons having interpretive authority viz-a-viz the Scriptures are those to whom the deposit of faith was entrusted in the previous generation, all the way back to the Apostles themselves.

In this way Tertullian provides a clear example of the Catholic understanding of interpretive authority, and the basis for it in apostolic succession.

Regarding the interpretive authority of the Church viz-a-viz the individual, the Council of Trent stated the following:.

Furthermore, to check unbridled spirits, it decrees that no one relying on his own judgment shall, in matters of faith and morals pertaining to the edification of Christian doctrine, distorting the Holy Scriptures in accordance with his own conceptions, presume to interpret them contrary to that sense which holy mother Church, to whom it belongs to judge of their true sense and interpretation, has held and holds, or even contrary to the unanimous teaching of the Fathers.

Now since the decree on the interpretation of Holy Scripture, profitably made by the Council of Trent, with the intention of constraining rash speculation, has been wrongly interpreted by some, we renew that decree and declare its meaning to be as follows: In consequence, it is not permissible for anyone to interpret Holy Scripture in a sense contrary to this, or indeed against the unanimous consent of the fathers.

One of the primary tasks of the Magisterium is to give the authoritative interpretation of the deposit of faith. The task of giving an authentic interpretation of the Word of God, whether in its written form or in the form of Tradition, has been entrusted to the living teaching office of the Church alone.

Its authority in this matter is exercised in the name of Jesus Christ. The pronouncements of the teaching and interpretative authority of the Church do not hold the same intrinsic authority as the deposit of faith, just as the Apostles were not equal in authority to Christ Himself.

Christ has greater authority than did the Apostles, but that does not entail that when the Apostles were preaching and teaching they had no authority, or that they only had authority when what they were saying was divinely inspired.

Having interpretive authority does not entail that the interpreter has the same or more authority than what is being interpreted.

The Apostles and Christ, however, do not have equal authority. Yet this Magisterium is not superior to the Word of God, but is its servant.

It teaches only what has been handed on to it. At the divine command and with the help of the Holy Spirit, it listens to this devotedly, guards it with dedication and expounds it faithfully.

All that it proposes for belief as being divinely revealed is drawn from this single deposit of faith.

There is a three-fold arrangement of ecclesial authority consisting of Sacred Tradition, Sacred Scripture, and Magisterium, each according to its own mode:.

It is clear therefore that, in the supremely wise arrangement of God, sacred Tradition, Sacred Scripture and the Magisterium of the Church are so connected and associated that one of them cannot stand without the others.

Working together, each in its own way, under the action of the one Holy Spirit, they all contribute effectively to the salvation of souls.

In Catholic theology Scripture is something known and properly understood only within the bosom of the Church, and only as explicated by the Magisterium of the Church.

Of course this does not preclude private study of Scripture; that is encouraged. The Holy Spirit operates through the Magisterium to cast a supernatural light upon Scripture, so that it may be understood according to the same Spirit by Whom it was inspired.

So, in sum, the authority of Scripture is the authority of the deposit of faith. The authority of the Magisterium, on the other hand, is interpretive authority with respect to the deposit of faith.

These are two different types or modes of authority. They do not compete with each other, but complement each other, and are mutually dependent.

The Magisterium cannot exist as an interpretive authority, without the sacred deposit of the Word of God. Similarly, the Sacred Scriptures cannot provide their own authentic and authoritative interpretation to the Church, and so require the Magisterium in order to fulfill their purpose in the Church.

It is primarily the doctrine of Magisterial infallibility. First, one might believe that if any doctrinal pronouncements by the Magisterium are infallible, then such pronouncements are equivalent in authority to Scripture.

Second, he might think that if any doctrinal pronouncements by the Magisterium are infallible, then there is no court of appeals for such doctrines.

Consider the first reason. If two statements are true, this does not entail that they are equally authoritative. Authority is not reducible to truth.

Since infallibility means protected from error, therefore it only means that the result is true. It does not, in itself, determine the degree of authority the statement has.

Authority in this sense is that to which submission and obedience is due from those entrusted to it. Reducing authority to truth conceptually eliminates authority.

That is because such a reduction would imply that we need only submit to authority when the authority speaks what we already believe, or can independently verify, to be the truth.

An authoritative interpretation of Scripture is authoritative not because it is true though it is true , but because of the authority given by Christ to the Magisterium to which is due submission of mind and will regarding the authentic interpretation of Scripture.

For this reason the infallibility of a doctrinal pronouncement by the Magisterium does not make that doctrinal pronouncement as authoritative or more authoritative than Scripture itself.

The other objection to Magisterial infallibility is that it removes the possibility of a court of appeals for such doctrines.

In reply, recall that for Mathison,. There are a few things we can say here. It makes no sense to appeal an infallible decision.

Wishing to appeal an infallible ruling begs the question, by presuming that the infallible ruling is fallible. The problem in that case is not that the Magisterium has a charism of infallibility, but that the person requiring an additional court of appeals has not recognized that the Magisterium has this charism.

It cannot be Scripture itself, for the reason shown above, that Scripture needs to be interpreted. So it must be some other person or persons.

Designate those to whom the Magisterium is accountable as x. Now, to whom are x accountable? Designate those to whom x are accountable as y.

Now to whom are y accountable? We can keep asking this question. Either there is an infinite regress, or there is a final interpretive authority.

But an infinite regress of accountability is absurd. So if there is to be accountability with respect to doctrinal and interpretive judgments, there must be a highest or final interpretive authority.

Therefore the request for the Magisterium to be accountable to some other body is a denial that the Magisterium is the Magisterium, and a presumption that there is another Magisterium having final interpretive authority.

But the person who wants the Magisterium to be accountable to some other body, can only be satisfied if that body is either himself or those whom he approves.

Otherwise his dissatisfaction with the lack of accountability would necessarily remain, for any body which has final interpretive authority.

Hence the person who demands that the Magisterium be accountable to some other body is in actuality demanding that the Magisterium be accountable directly or indirectly to himself.

And that is another way of showing that the demand is in essence an implicit arrogation to oneself of Magisterial authority.

It is an expression of the maxim: It is the individual who decides what Scripture means. It is the individual who judges between doctrines on the basis of his individual interpretation of Scripture.

It is the individual who is sovereign. Philosophies and theologies more fully manifest their nature over time.

Sola scriptura could temporarily conceal its true nature, as Protestantism lived on the inertial remnants of Catholic conceptions of sacramental authority.

Sacramental magisterial authority is supernatural in origin, as we explained above, because the Church is a divine institution. The denial of sacramental magisterial authority closes a person off to the Church as supernatural, leaving only the possibility of democratic bottom-up man-made authority under providential guidance.

As Protestants have come to understand more clearly the democratic nature of Protestant ecclesial authority, they have come to see that as Protestants, they themselves as individuals, hold final interpretive authority, and have come to live as such.

Louis Bouyer concurs, saying:. The main difficulty Protestants have with the Catholic Church and with the separated Eastern church as well is on the subject of authority, and more particularly the teaching authority she claims.

The opposition of those Protestants who are closest to the spirit of primitive Protestantism rests, as we have said, on the fear that whatever is conceded to the authority of the Church detracts correspondingly from the authority of the Word of God in the Bible.

The opposition of those who adhere to doctrinal liberalism, however, while equally strong, has a different object, quite the reverse of the other.

They object to it simply because it is authority and therefore something inimical to the individual religious conscience. This being the case, we may be tempted to believe that Protestantism, in the course of its development, has passed from one extreme to the other.

That is to a certain extent, but not absolutely, true. The Protestantism which rejects the authority of the Church because it rejects all authority has come out of the Protestantism which rejected the authority of the Church because of the fear it wronged that other authority, held to be sovereign, of the Scriptures.

If it was possible for the first to come from the second, it must somehow have been contained therein.

Bouyer presents two stances within Protestantism toward Magisterial authority. One of them, which he refers to as those closest to early Protestantism, fears that Magisterial authority detracts from the authority of Scripture, as though the two are the same sort of authority, and hence must be in competition with each other.

Liberal Protestantism, by contrast, likewise objects to Magisterial authority, not for fear that it might detract from the authority of Scripture, but simply because it rejects authority.

But according to Bouyer, that would be inaccurate. The liberal rejection of authority came out of the earlier Protestant conception of authority, precisely because it was somehow contained within it.

Recovering Apostolic Succession is the only way to avoid Solo. Only by recovering apostolic succession. And there in essence is the fulfillment of St.

For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; but wanting to have their ears tickled, they will accumulate for themselves teachers in accordance to their own desires 2 Timothy 4: Without apostolic succession, the individual has no less interpretive authority than does the Church.

May Christ the Good Shepherd bring us all into the one flock with one shepherd. Leading men and women to God, to the God who speaks in the Bible: A logical consequence of this is that we must have at heart the unity of all believers.

Their disunity, their disagreement among themselves, calls into question the credibility of their talk of God. Hence the effort to promote a common witness by Christians to their faith — ecumenism — is part of the supreme priority.

Dei Verbum , one of the documents of Vatican II, teaches:. Holy Scripture must be read and interpreted in the sacred spirit in which it was written, no less serious attention must be given to the content and unity of the whole of Scripture if the meaning of the sacred texts is to be correctly worked out.

The living tradition of the whole Church must be taken into account along with the harmony which exists between elements of the faith.

It is the task of exegetes to work according to these rules toward a better understanding and explanation of the meaning of Sacred Scripture, so that through preparatory study the judgment of the Church may mature.

For all of what has been said about the way of interpreting Scripture is subject finally to the judgment of the Church, which carries out the divine commission and ministry of guarding and interpreting the word of God.

Dei Verbum , But we agree with Mathison that there is some truth to the connection between solo scriptura and relativism. Someone might object that divisions are good, since St.

Paul is not there praising division among Christians. He is teaching that division always entails schism from , not schism within. A Response to Dr.

The doctrine of solo scriptura , despite its claims to uniquely preserve the authority of the Word of God, destroys that authority by making the meaning of Scripture dependent upon the judgment of each individual.

Rather than the Word of God being the one final court of appeal, the court of appeal becomes the multiplied minds of each believer.

One is persuaded that Calvinism is more biblical. The other is persuaded that dispensationalism is more biblical. And by what standard does each decide?

The standard is necessarily individualistic, and therefore the standard is necessarily relativistic. But the evidence does not support that claim.

Protestant theologians in many different traditions have been using exegetical methods to support their particular interpretations of Scripture for almost five hundred years.

And yet there has been little to no convergence of these various traditions and denominations. Instead new theological positions and traditions have arisen, positions such as dispensationalism, Pentecostalism, open theism, federal vision, etc.

The continued diversification and variegation within Protestantism indicates that exegesis is not capable of establishing or preserving unity among Christians who believe in the inspiration and authority of Scripture.

Exegesis has shown itself to be used more within a tradition to support the theological position held by those in that tradition.

So the appeal to exegesis only pushes back the question: Methodist, Anglican, Baptist, Pentecostal, etc. And we have to ask ourselves how much more time would be necessary to falsify the claim that exegesis is capable of unifying all Christians.

The Difference a Vowel Makes. The doctrine of the Trinity and deity of Christ become as open to debate as the doctrine of exclusive psalmody in worship.

It is extremely important to understand the importance of this point. In other words, each individual is responsible for establishing his or her own doctrinal boundaries-—his or her own creed.

The Catholic understanding of the relation between Scripture and the Church treats Scripture as a treasure entrusted by Christ to the Church, properly known and understood only within the bosom of the Church as explicated by her divinely appointed shepherds.

Catholics come to Scripture through the guidance of Holy mother Church. To assert that the Bible is the sole infallible authority, and that the Bible is the final and supreme norm, in no way rules out the necessity or reality of other secondary and penultimate authorities.

The Church is one such subordinate authority recognized by the early Church and by the Reformers. It is only within the Church that we find Scripture interpreted rightly, and it is only within the Church that we find the gospel.

Session 6, Canon 9. God is in heaven; we are on earth. Situated between heaven and earth, we lack the knowledge of angels.

What, then, are our options? None of these options inspires confidence. I propose a fourth possibility: His option 2 is Catholicism.

His option 4 is not a fourth theoretical option, but a proposal to search for a way out of the hermeneutical mess. Of course we agree that 1 and 3 are false, for reasons we have explained in this article.

In this way, we willingly embrace and reverence as holy the early councils, such as those of Nicaea, Constantinople, Ephesus I, Chalcedon, and the like, which were concerned with refuting errors — in so far as they relate to the teachings of faith.

For they contain nothing but the pure and genuine exposition of Scripture, which the holy fathers applied with spiritual prudence to crush the enemies of religion who had then arisen.

The reason Calvin accepts the first four ecumenical councils, but not the following councils, is because the first four, but not the later ones, sufficiently agree with his interpretation of Scripture.

This shows again the same problem described above: Rather, he merely ascribes authority to them on the ground that these four councils agree with his own interpretation.

Luther responded by publicly burning a copy of this Church document in December of that year. As a result, on January 3, , he was excommunicated.

In the Spring of that year, Luther appeared before the Diet of Worms. He was asked by Johann Eck, an official of the Archbishop of Trier, whether he rejected any part of his writings.

You do nothing be renew the errors of Wyclif and Hus. Martin, how can you assume that you are the only one to understand the sense of Scripture?

Would you put your judgment above that of so many famous men and claim that you know more than they all?

You have no right to call into question the most holy orthodox faith, instituted by Christ the perfect lawgiver, proclaimed throughout the world by the apostles, sealed by the red blood of the martyrs, confirmed by the sacred councils, defined by the Church in which all our fathers believed until death and gave to us as an inheritance, and which now we are forbidden by the pope and the emperor to [debate] lest there be no end of debate.

I ask you, Martin —. A Life of Martin Luther , pp. Among the principal duties of bishops the preaching of the Gospel occupies an eminent place.

For bishops are preachers of the faith, who lead new disciples to Christ, and they are authentic teachers, that is, teachers endowed with the authority of Christ, who preach to the people committed to them the faith they must believe and put into practice, and by the light of the Holy Spirit illustrate that faith.

They bring forth from the treasury of Revelation new things and old, making it bear fruit and vigilantly warding off any errors that threaten their flock.

Bishops, teaching in communion with the Roman Pontiff, are to be respected by all as witnesses to divine and Catholic truth.

In matters of faith and morals, the bishops speak in the name of Christ and the faithful are to accept their teaching and adhere to it with a religious assent.

This religious submission of mind and will must be shown in a special way to the authentic magisterium of the Roman Pontiff, even when he is not speaking ex cathedra.

Lumen Gentium , Donum Veritatis , Anything taught by the Magisterium can be further developed. But development never contradicts what has already been given.

If it could, then over the last years, nothing at all would have been definitively established; the Arians might still turn out to have been right.

And in that case, there would have been no point in holding any councils. In Protestantism and Catholicism , pp. I think you are right in pointing out that ultimately there is no difference between the two.

What I had not seen before reading your article was how somebody indirectly makes themselves their own interpretive authority. Have you seen this approach, which my Professor took before?

How would you respond to it? The Catholic position does not abide by sola scriptura therefore your professor has still begged the question.

He operates from a sola scriptura paradigm which cannot be found in Scripture and then hammers the Catholics for not operating from sola scriptura.

Our point is to show that implicit within the claim by proponents of sola scriptura to be submitting to the Church, is always a prior judgment concerning which body of persons count as the Church, and a theological assumption about how that judgment is to be made.

I know this has come up before and will do so again, but how is it that the Catholic is not doing the exact same thing albeit in a different way?

You asked me how I would respond. I would call into question his working assumption that if a doctrine is not explicitly stated in Scripture, then Christians do not need to believe it.

I might write a post up on the subject of Scripture and Tradition, but in the mean time, I recommend listening to the first lecture in this lecture series by Prof.

The fact of development should lead us to be very cautious about inferring from apparent early silence about a doctrine to the conclusion that the doctrine is a heretical accretion.

The Protestant is seeking a group of persons who believe, teach and practice what his interpretation of Scripture indicates was the belief, teaching and practice of the Apostles….

The Catholic convert studies the Scripture and the fathers and concludes that the church Christ founded looks like what the Catholic Catechism says it is, while the Protestant does the same and concludes the church looks like what the Heidelberg Catechism says it is.

If you step outside your tradition for a moment and consider this, can you see how it looks to the rest of us? There are a number of ways to address your points.

If the only thing that matters concerning ecclesiastic validity is for there to be literal succession from the bishops of the 1st century to now then Rome is right about everything, end of story.

In short to assume the RCC definition of apostolic succession is to define away Protestantism. But let me give you another way of looking at the issue.

At the origins of Christianity we find writings of men who assumed the infallibility of the Scriptures. We have talked about Clement on a number of occasions here.

He speaks with great authority by pounding home verse after verse from the Bible. He assuredly believed what the Apostles and Prophets had before him that the Scriptures were the infallible Word of God because they were inspired and thus these could be used as an ultimate standard.

If they did not,then we are left with Scripture alone unless you want to suggest another possibility? If they did, then they did not believe in Scripture alone, they believed in Scripture plus this something else.

Now of course as a Protestant my position is that the Scriptures are superior to the words of the bishops as Augustine held , but I think we have been through that before.

The point I want to really bring home is that the Church would not have fallen apart if she had always viewed tradition as a secondary authority to the Scriptures.

Play this thought game for me, Bryan. Assume for the moment that Clement and his contemporaries believed that only Scripture could be the final bar of authority.

Now given this belief of the Early Church, what would have stopped the Church from acting authoritatively as that authority was laid out by Christ and the Apostles?

Of course, I will have to read it several times to absorb it completely. Professor Feingold is an amazing gift to the Church.

As a Jewish Convert to the Catholic Church, his insights are phenomenal. I believe you suggested his lecture series, Bryan. All of his lectures give new meaning to our common faith.

The comment box is intended for use only by those who have read the article. The article is long, I understand, but if you wish to comment, please read the article first.

Also, comments should stay on-topic, that means, directly interacting with the argument in this article. Its not as if the Catholic definition of apostolic succession was just invented yesterday and we are backing into something here.

This is creedal Christianity. In this order of succession no Donatist bishop is found. Augustine, here, describes what Apostolic Succession means.

Its pretty clear which definition is a later invention intended to back into a presupposition. The second part of your comment is an attempt to pit scripture against the church.

This is not the Catholic position. Scripture must be interpreted by the Church. Both the person becoming Protestant, and the person becoming Catholic, are using their own judgment.

And you are correct that the Catholic convert might study Scripture and the Fathers. And the Protestant convert might study Scripture and the Fathers.

That too is not where the difference is located. The difference is that while the person becoming Protestant bases his determination of the nature and location of the Church fundamentally on agreement with his own interpretation of Scripture not on what those having the succession from the Apostles say is the nature and location of the Church , the person becoming Catholic bases his determination of the nature and location of the Church fundamentally on what those having the succession from the Apostles say is the nature and location of the Church.

The practice of church shopping indicates two things, that the individual believes that he has the right to church shop until he finds a church that agrees with his own private interpretation of scriptures, and that the Protestant churches have the right organize themselves via democratic principles.

Where in the Bible did the Old Testament prophets teach synagogue shopping or the Apostles teach church shopping? Even worse than church shopping is the idea that a bible believer has the authority to found a new church that teaches novel doctrines.

The new non-denominational church in town spun off from the Vineyard Church that spun off from the Calvary Chapel Church, that spun off from the … Sheesh!

Do Protestants really have the freedom to go church shopping and found new sects that teach novel doctrines? Mathison grants that each individual may appeal to Scripture to correct the Church, disobey the Church and leave the Church, so long as he is following his conscience.

Without apostolic succession, there is within Protestantism no group of persons already having divine authorization to provide the definitive decision regarding matters of doctrine and interpretation ….

Both Jehovah Witnesses and Mormons teach that the believer must submit to the men that hold the authority of a teaching office within their respective churches:.

Watchtower; June 15, ; p. As members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, we are blessed to be led by living prophets—inspired men called to speak for the Lord, as did Moses, Isaiah, Peter, Paul, Nephi, Mormon, and other prophets of the scriptures.

We sustain the President of the Church as prophet, seer, and revelator—the only person on the earth who receives revelation to guide the entire Church.

A church hierarchy that can change the doctrine of the church cannot also be a source of infallible truth.

The Catholic Church has never taught a doctrine of the Primacy of Conscience, but has, instead, taught the doctrine of the Primacy of Peter.

Who among those that adhere to the doctrine of the Primacy of Conscience believe that all men and women are born with perfectly formed consciences?

The man born with a conscience that is perfectly formed does not need scripture to form it, and the man that does not have a perfectly formed conscience could not depend on his conscience to infallibly guide him in his interpretation of scriptures.

This would entail that all those who opposed the creeds were blind, deaf, and stupid …. The creeds are summaries of the doctrines believed by the Church.

I always wonder how Protestants can seriously claim to believe in the perspicuity of scriptures and then reconcile that belief with the reality that outside of their particular Protestant sect there are thousands upon thousands of Protestant sects that that teaching contradictory church doctrine.

I doubt it, since most Protestants also believe that there is nothing wrong with church shopping.

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